A month or two ago I made a post about the “Shanghai Ghetto,” the probable topic of my Master’s thesis. Since making that post I’ve done a large amount of research and spent about a month writing a research paper about a subset of life for the Jewish refugees in Shanghai. So, in light of that, I want to clear up a few things I got wrong, or over-simplified in my last post on the subject.
-German and Austrian Jews fleeing Germany first took a train from Germany to either Naples or Genoa. There, they would sail through the Mediterranean, through the Suez Canal, into the Indian Ocean, and all the way to the coast of China. Their ship would then make its way down the Whangpoo River until it docked at the Bund (Shanghai’s harbor-side financial district).
Jewish refugees flooded into Shanghai via this route from 1938 until it was closed upon Italy’s entrance into the war on June 10, 1940. After this closure, Jewish refugees fled to Shanghai via the trans-Siberian Railroad. This route took them across Russia through to Manchuria, at which point the majority boarded a ship for Shanghai. This route was open until December 7, 1941. After that date, all escape routes to Shanghai were closed to Jews.
And now we can celebrate the return of my mildly inaccurate MS Paint maps (both courtesy of Google Maps)! The first map shows the Italy-Shanghai route in use from 1938-1940, and the second shows the overland train route in use from 1940-1941. Obviously the ships did not sail over India or Japan; that is just me being incapable of drawing accurate lines on MS Paint.
-Also in Shanghai were Sephardic and Russian communities. The Sephardic Jewish community was generally Baghdadi in origin, and traveled to Shanghai as businessmen under the auspices of the British Empire. Members of this community—specifically the Kadoorie and Sassoon families—gave great sums of money to the Jewish refugee community. The Russian Jewish community had fled to Shanghai from Russia in the midst of the Russian Civil War; they were fleeing from the violently anti-Semitic White Russian forces.
When the refugees—many newly destitute as Nazi policy forbade them from taking many valuables or more than about fifteen American dollars out of the country—arrived in Shanghai, their impoverished status embarrassed the pre-existing Jewish communities who feared that the presence of these impoverished (white) Jews would take away from their own status within Shanghai.
-The “Shanghai Ghetto” moniker is a misleading one. The Hongkew District of Shanghai was home to the city’s poorest Chinese inhabitants. It was partially destroyed in 1937 by hostilities in the Sino-Japanese War, and had not been rebuilt when the refugees began to arrive in 1938. Jewish relief organizations in Allied and neutral countries along with the Sephardic and Russian communities in Shanghai set up refugee homes based in Hongkew for the newly arrived refugees, as structures were inexpensive in that location. These homes (Heime), though obviously better than nothing, were crowded, unsanitary, and the time spent there was extremely distressing for the formerly upper middle class refugees*.
Though some refugees received money from relations in Allied or neutral countries, had smuggled money and/or valuables out of Germany, or had been able to quickly find gainful employment and relocate to the French or International Concessions, many were never able to secure enough money to get out of Hongkew. Some, so traumatized by Kristallnacht, leaving Germany, and arriving with nothing to the Heime—so traumatized by their loss of identity—became depressed and never left their Heim.
In February 1943, the Japanese rulers of Shanghai announced that all “Stateless Persons” who had arrived in Shanghai after 1937 had to relocate to Hongkew by May 1943. Though it was not specified in the language of the proclamation, it was taken to be directed at the Jewish refugees, and was directed at them as an attempt on the part of the Japanese to appease their German allies. Thus, it was only a “Ghetto” for the Jews in the last two years of the war.
-Many dates are attributed to the time at which this refugee community was in Shanghai, a popular one being 1938-1945, but I prefer 1938-1949 because it was in 1949 that Mao Zedong established the People’s Republic of China, and it was by 1949 that most of the refugee community had fled to the United States, Australia, or Israel. By 1957, only 100 Jews were left in Shanghai.
I want to my MA thesis to be a social history of the 1938-1949 refugee community, and I hope to go on to do doctoral work at XYZ University and write my dissertation about the Jews of Shanghai from 1800-1949. This is a relatively recent decision, and quite a few people have asked me why I’m so fascinated by this particular community. After all, far bigger things were happening to world Jewry in this period.
My answer is: because of the transnational nature of it all. There was just so much stuff going on. You have Russian, British, Japanese, French, American, German, Austro-Hungarian, and Italian imperialism, the nature of their interference in Chinese development (I’m talking along the lines of the Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion); you have the Jews who arrived in Shanghai from Baghdad against the backdrop British imperialism; you have the Russian Jews in Shanghai, fleeing from the post-Revolution Civil War between the anti-Communist monarchists (the White Army) and the Bolsheviks (the Red Army); you have Japanese imperial aggression, their treatment of the Chinese in the Sino-Japanese War, and their continuing brutal treatment of the Chinese during the Japanese occupation; you have the class issues within the Chinese community of Shanghai; you have multiple forms of racial constructs going between these communities; you have the thriving organized crime community of Shanghai which existed as a result of the impact of imperialism on law in Shanghai.
And into all of that you add World War II and about 17,000 Ashkenazic Jews running from Hitler. It’s like a hot mess of transnational stuff ramming into each other, and I’ve only just begun to scratch the surface of it.
Anyway, I just wanted to share that with you (because let’s be real, this is sooo not the last you’ll be hearing of it). This post doesn’t contain any arguments about the community or expand on any of my possible arguments from the last post because, unfortunately, I don’t think it would be wise to put those arguments online. And now I’ll get back to researching the next Fierce Historical Ladies post.
*I could tell you more about the conditions within the Heime and Hongkew as a whole which caused these refugees such existential distress, but I am not sure if you want a post about toilets, sewage, sanitation, etc. I personally find history relating to sewage and sanitation to be really interesting (if not gross) but I don’t know if you want to read about such things. Let me know if you do.